How to Square a Number in Excel

Last Updated: May 13, 2024

- Written by Puneet

Let’s say you’re a real estate agent preparing a report on available properties. You need to calculate the area of square-shaped plots of land to provide accurate information to potential buyers. Each plot’s side length is listed in one column in Excel.

By squaring this number, you can quickly find out the total area of each plot. This helps you provide clear and essential details to your clients, enhancing your report’s value and utility.

If you want to square a number in Excel, you can use two easy ways to follow methods, and both methods work in the same way.

You need to specify the number for which you want to calculate the square and specify 2 as you want to calculate the square. But in this tutorial, we will also learn some other methods as well.

Use POWER to Square in Excel

In Excel, the POWER function raises a number to a specified power. You type in the base number and the exponent, and Excel calculates the result for you.

It has two arguments: the base and the exponent. The base is the number you want to raise to a power, and the exponent is the power you raise the base to (let’s say square).

  1. Enter the POWER function in the cell.
  2. Refer to the cell where you have the number for which you need to calculate the square.
  3. In the second argument, enter 2 as you need to raise the power to 2.
  4. Close the function and hit enter.

The moment you need to hit enter the function returns the square as you can see in the above example.

Using the Caret Operator (^) for SQUARE

In Excel, the caret operator (^) is used for exponentiation, which is used to raise a number to the power of another number.

For example, if you want to square the number 3, use the formula =3^2, which calculates to 9. This operator is straightforward and powerful for performing mathematical operations involving powers in Excel formulas. Let’s take an example with data:

  1. Refer to the cell where you have a number for which you want to calculate the square.
  2. Enter a ^ using the keyboard (you can find it on the number key 6).
  3. Type 2, which tells Excel to raise its power to 2.
  4. Hit enter to get the result.

As I said, both functions work in the same way and are quite easy to use. But you can choose one according to your need.

Using Basic Multiplication for SQUARE

Apart from the formulas discussed above, the simplest way to square a number is by using the multiplication operator *. If your number is in cell A1, you can use:

=A1 * A1

This is by far the easiest method for calculating a number’s square. You can refer to a cell or directly enter the values into the formula.

Using the PRODUCT Function for SQUARE

To use the PRODUCT function to calculate the square of a number in Excel, you can multiply the number by itself within the function.

For example, if you have a number in cell A1 and you want to square it, you can use the following formula:


The above formula takes the number from the cell A1 and multiplies it by itself for squaring the number.

SQUARE Numbers from an Entire Range

You can use a dynamic array to square a range of numbers dynamically and return an array of squared numbers (available in Excel 365 and Excel 2019); you can use a simple formula with the exponentiation operator.


Select the cell where you want the dynamic array result to start. Ideally, this should be to the right or below your data to ensure enough space for the array to spill.

Assume you have numbers in the range A1:A10. You want to square each of these numbers. Enter the following formula in the cell B1.

And if you are using a earlier version, then you can use the same formula but using the CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER to convert it into the an array formula.

Let’s if you have 10 values in the range A1:A10, select the range B1:B10, enter the formula in the cell B1, and then press CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER to enter the formula.

Create a Custom Function to Square a Number

If you frequently need to square numbers, you can create a custom function in Excel to make this calculation quick.

Function Square(Number As Double) As Double
    Square = Number * Number
End Function

To add this custom function in Excel, press ALT + F11 to open the VBA editor, then go to Insert > Module and paste your code into the new module window. Close the VBA editor to return to Excel and enter the function.