VBA IF – IF Then Else Statement

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If you want to be an advanced VBA user then an IF statement is must learn. And, I believe that you are already familiar with the word IF and you are frequently using it as a worksheet function.

In VBA, IF works just like the same. Its basic idea is to perform a task when a condition is TRUE else do nothing or do something else. You can write simply as well as complex conditions.

For understanding purposes, I have split it into three different parts.

  • A condition to test.
  • A task to perform if the condition is TRUE.
  • A task to perform if the condition is FALSE.

This is how it looks like in real life:

using VBA IF statement code in excel

In the above example, rain is a condition. If this condition is TRUE, the boy will open his umbrella and if the condition is FALSE he will wear his hat. Conditions are everywhere in our day to day life. But now, let’s back to our coding world and explore it.

Syntax : VBA IF

We have three different types of IF statements in VBA.

1. IF-Then

IF THEN is the simplest form of IF statement. All we need to do, specify a condition to check and if that condition is TRUE it will perform a task. But, if that condition is FALSE it will do nothing and skip the line instantly.

Syntax

IF condition Then statement[s]

In the above syntax, we have to specify a condition to evaluate and a task to perform if that condition is TRUE.

Example

vba if statement using if then macro code

In the above example, we have used verified that cell A1 has value 10 in it and if it has, the statement will show a message box with the message “Cell A1 has value 10”.

Sub CheckValue()
If Range("A1").Value = 10 Then
MsgBox ("Cell A1 has value 10")
End Sub

2. IF-Then-Else

You can use IF-Then-Else statement where you want to perform a specific task if a condition is TRUE and a different task if a condition is FALSE.

Syntax

IF Condition Then
Statement[s]
Else
Statement[s]
End If

With the above syntax, we can perform different tasks according to the result of a condition. If the condition is TRUE then it will perform the statement which you have mentioned after “Then” or if the condition is FALSE it will perform the statement which you have mentioned after “Else”.

Example

Sub CheckValue()
 If Range("A1").Value = "10" Then
     MsgBox ("Cell A1 has value 10")
 Else
     MsgBox ("Cell A1 has a value other than 10")
 End Sub
vba if statement using if then else macro code

In the above example, I have used the IF-Then-Else statement to check the value in cell A1.

If cell A1 has value 10, you will get a message box showing “Cell A1 has value 10” and if there is any other value in cell A1 you get a message box showing “Cell A1 has a value other than 10”. So, here we are able to perform different tasks according to the result of the condition.

3. IF-Then-Elseif-Else

This is the most useful and important type of IF which will help you to write advanced condition statements. In this type, you can specify the second condition after evaluation your first condition.

Syntax

IF Condition Then
Statement[s]
Elseif Condition Then
Statement[s]
Else
Statement[s]
End If

In above syntax, we have:

  1. A condition to evaluate.
  2. A statement to perform if that condition is TURE.
  3. If that condition is FALSE then we have the second condition to evaluate.
  4. And, if that the second condition is TRUE we have a statement to perform.
  5. But, if both conditions, first and second are FALSE then it will perform a statement which you have mentioned after “Else”.

And, the best part is you can use any number of “Elseif” in your code. That means you can specify any number of conditions in your statement.

Example

vba if statement using if then elseif else macro code
Sub check_grade()
 If Range("A2").Value = "A" Then
     MsgBox "Very Good"
 Else
 If Range("A2").Value = "B" Then
     MsgBox "Good"
 ElseIf Range("A2").Value = "C" Then
     MsgBox "Average"
 ElseIf Range("A2").Value = "D" Then
     MsgBox "Poor"
 ElseIf Range("A2").Value = "E" Then
     MsgBox "Very Poor"
 Else
     MsgBox "Enter Correct Grade"
 End Sub

In the above example, we have written a macro which will first check cell A2 for value “A” and if the cell has the grade “A”, the statement will return the message “Very Good”.

This statement will first check cell A2 for value “A” and if the cell has the grade “A”, the statement will return the message “Very Good”.

And, if the first condition is FALSE then it will evaluate the second condition and return the message “Good” if the cell has grade “B”.

And, if the second condition it false then it will go to the third condition and so on. In the end, if all the five conditions are false it will run the code which I have written after else.

Secret about writing an IF statement in VBA

Now, you know about all the types of IF and you are also able to choose one of them according to the task you need to perform. Let me tell you a secret.

One Line IF statement Vs. Block IF statement

You can write an IF statements in two different ways and both have advantages and disadvantages. Have a look.

1. One Line Statement

One line statement is perfect if you are using the IF-Then statement. The basic to use one line statement is to write your entire code in one line.

If A1 = 10 Then Msgbox("Cell A1 has value 10")

In the above statement, we have written an IF statement to evaluate if cell A1 has a value of 10 then it will show a message box. The best practice to use one line statement is when you have to write a simple code. Using one line code for complex and lengthy statements are hard to understand.

Quick Tip: While writing single line code you don’t need to use Endif to end the statement.

2. Block Statement

Block statement is perfect when you want to write your code in a decent and understandable way. When you writing a block statement you can use multiple lines in your macro which give you a neat and clean code.

Sub check_value()
 If Range(“A1”).Value = “10” Then
     MsgBox ("Cell A1 has value 10")
 Else
     MsgBox ("Cell A1 has a value other than 10")
 End If
 End Sub

In the above example, we have written an IF-Then-Else statement in blocks. And, you can see that it is easy to read and even easy to debug.

When you will write complex statements (which you will definitely do after reading this guide) using block statements are always good. And, while writing nested If statements you can also add indentation in your line for more clarity.

Quick Tip – You have an exception that you can skip using Else at the end of your code when you are using IF-Then-Elseif-Else. This is very helpful when you do not need to perform any task when none of the conditions is TRUE in your statement.

8 Real Life Examples

Here I have listed some simple but useful examples which you can follow along.

1. Nested IF

The best part of IF statement is you create nesting statements. You can add a second condition in the first condition.

writing nesting if with vba if statement
Sub NestIF()
 Dim res As Long
 res = MsgBox("Do you want to save this file?", vbYesNo, "Save File")
 If res = vbYes Then 'start of first IF statement
     If ActiveWorkbook.Saved <> True Then 'start of second IF statement.
         ActiveWorkbook.SaveMsgBox ("Workbook Saved")
     Else
         MsgBox "This workbook is already saved"
     End If 'end of second IF statement
 Else
     MsgBox "Make Sure to save it later"
 End If ' end of first IF statement
 End Sub

In the above example, we have used a nested IF statement. When you run this macro you will get a message box with OK and Cancel option. Work of conditional statement starts after that.

First, it will evaluate that which button you have clicked. If you clicked “Yes” then nest it will evaluate that your worksheet is saved or not.

If your workbook is not saved, it will save it and you will get a message. And, if the workbook is already saved it will show a message about that.

But, If you click no button the condition of the first macro will be FALSE and you will only get a message to save your book later.

The basic idea in this code is that the second condition is totally dependent on the first condition if the first condition is FALSE then the second condition will not get evaluated.

More on Nested IF

2. Create Loop With IF and GoTo

You can also create a loop by using goto with IF. Most of the programmers avoid writing loops this way as we have better ways for a loop. But there is no harm to learn how we can do this.

Sub auto_open()
 Alert: If InputBox("Enter Username") <> "Puneet" Then
 GoTo Alert
 Else
 MsgBox "Welcome"
 End If
End Sub

In the above example, we have used a condition statement to create a loop. We have used auto_open as the name of the macro so that whenever anyone opens the file it will run that macro.

The user needs to enter a username and if that username is not equal to “Puneet” it will repeat the code and show the input box again. And, if you enter the right text then he/she will be able to access the file.

3. Check if a Cell Contains a Number

Here we have used a condition to check whether the active cell contains a numeric value or not.

using vba if statement to check number in cell
Sub check_number()
 If IsNumeric(Range("B2").Value) Then
     MsgBox "Yes, active cell has a number."
 Else
     MsgBox "No, active cell hasn't a number."
 End If
 End Sub

In the above example, I have written a condition by using the isnumeric function in VBA which is the same as the worksheet’s isnumber function to check whether the value in a cell is a number or not.

If the value is a number it will return TRUE and you will get a message “Yes, Active Cell Has A Numeric Value”. And, if the value is non-number then you will get a message “No Numeric Value In Active Cell”.

4. Using OR and AND With IF

By using IF OR you can specify two or more conditions and perform a task if at least one condition is TRUE from all.

Sub UsingOR()
 If Range("A1") < 70 Or Range("B1") < 70 Then
     MsgBox "You Are Pass"
 Else
     If Range("A1") < 40 And Range("B1") < 40 Then
         MsgBox "You Are Pass"
     Else
         MsgBox "You Are Fail"
     End If
 End If
 End Sub

In the above example, in line 2, we have two conditions using the OR. If a student gets 70 marks in any of the subjects the result will be “Pass”. And on line 7, we have two conditions using the AND operator. If a student gets more than 40 marks in both of the subjects the result will be “Pass”.

By using the IF AND you can specify more than one condition and perform a task if all the conditions are TRUE.

5. Using Not With IF

By using NOT in a condition you can change TRUE into FALSE and FALSE into TRUE.

VBA IF Not

Sub IF_Not()
     If Range(“D1”) <= 40 And Not Range(“E1”) = “E” Then
         MsgBox "You Are Pass."
     Else
         MsgBox "You Are Fail."
     End If
 End Sub

In the above example, we have used NOT in the condition. We have two cell with the subject score. In one cell score is in numbers and in another cell it has grades.

  • If a student has marks above 40 in the first subject and above E grade in the second subject then he/she is a PASS.
  • If a student has marks above 40 in the first subject and above E grade in the second subject then he/she is PASS.

So every time when a student’s marks are more than 40 and grade other than E we will get a message “You are Pass” else “You are Fail”.

6. IF Statement With a Checkbox

Now, here we are using a checkbox to run a macro.

using vba if statement with checkbox
Sub ship_as_bill()
 If Range("D15") = True Then
     Range("D17:D21") = Range("C17:C21")
 Else
     If Range(“D15”) = False Then
         Range("D17:D21").ClearContents
     Else
         MsgBox (“Error!”)
     End If
 End If
 End Sub

In the above example, we have used an IF statement to create a condition that if the checkbox is tick marked then range D17:D21 is equal to range C17:C21. And, if the checkbox is not ticked then range D17:D21 will be blank.

Using this technique we can use billing address as shipping address and if we need something else we can enter the address manually.

7. Check if a Cell is Merged

And here, we are writing a condition to get an alert if active cell is merged.

check if a cell is merged using vba if statement
Sub MergeCellCheck()
If ActiveCell.MergeCells Then
MsgBox "Active Cell Is Merged"
Else
MsgBox "Active Cell Is Not Merged"
End If
End Sub

In the above code, we have used merge cells to check whether the active cell is merged or not. If the active cell is merged then the condition will return an alert for that.

8. Delete the Entire Row if a Cell is Blank

Here we are using IF to check a row is blank or not. And, if that row is blank statement will delete that particular row.

Sub DeleteRow()
If Application.CountA(ActiveCell.EntireRow) = 0 Then
 ActiveCell.EntireRow.Delete
Else
 MsgBox Application.CountA(ActiveCell.EntireRow) & "Cell(s) have values in this row"
End If
End Sub

In the above example, it will first check for the cells which have value in it. If the count of cells with value is zero then the condition will delete the active row else return the alert showing the number of cells having value.

Conclusion

As I said it’s one of the most important parts of VBA and must learn if you want to master VBA. With IF statement, you can write simple codes as well as complex codes. You can also use logical operators and write nested conditions.

I hope this guide will help you to write better codes.

Now tell me this. Do you write conditions in VBA frequently? What kind of codes do you write? Please share your views with me in the comment section. And, please don’t forget to share this guide with your friends.

Related: Exit IF

Learn More

VBA is one of the Advanced Excel Skills, and if you are getting started with VBA, make sure to check out Useful Macro Examples and VBA Codes.

24 thoughts

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  1. I’m new with VBA and I have a great challenge. I want to give the Tab a colour when one of the cells in the Range H12 till H41 has a value.
    This is the code that I have now:

    Private Sub Worksheet_SelectionChange(ByVal Target As Range)
    If Range(“H12”).Value “” Then
    ‘ Change the colour in Yellow
    ActiveWorkbook.Sheets(“Rep41”).Tab.ColorIndex = 6
    Else
    ‘ Set the colour in Grey
    ActiveWorkbook.Sheets(“Rep41”).Tab.ColorIndex = -4142
    End If
    End Sub

    The problem is that it only work is cell H12 is filled. Please can you help me with this problem?

    Kind regards,

    Reply
  2. Thank you for your helpful explaination.
    What if we have more than two(let’s say three or even more) condition but not optional and not nested condition?
    Can we added more than one “AND” ? because i’ve tried it and the system said syntax wrong

    Thank you

    Reply
  3. Hi ,
    I want to run a macro when a user open a Excel sheet and when “A1” does not have any data so the msg should come please copy the data from other sheet.and If the data is alreay present in A1 then it should prompt a msg box as welcome

    Reply
  4. Hi Puneet,
    Thankyou for making our life easy
    I work on hardcore MIS excels
    Where are major use is of lookups (V/H) & if conditions
    We also have to make data presentable in form of smart dashboards wherein management wanted to see all business summary in one sheet with multiple relevant graphs.

    Reply
  5. This is awesome, however, I would like if any book exists explaining terms in VBA such as Dim, Range, IncrementLeft and their uses.

    Thanks

    Reply
  6. It’s really everything about If, Puneet – good description and easy-to-be-followed examples. I’ll recommend this to my trainees.
    Best Wishes
    Katharina

    Reply
      • hi,
        yes it is – be aware of the fact that AND is executed first in this case. If you do want a predeceding OR to “win” you have to use brackets. e.g.
        If myCell = “A” Or myCell = “B” And yourCell < 0 Then …
        will react when B and yourCell is negative at the same time as well as when A disregarding yourCell
        If (myCell = "A" Or myCell = "B") And yourCell < 0 Then …
        will react when A or B and at the same time yourCell is negative
        Got it?

        Reply